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组织学与胚胎学教研室
张莉:组织学与胚胎学教授
刘春娜:药理学副教授
张蕾:生物化学与分子生物...
金梅花:免疫学副教授
韩东河:神经生物学副教授
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组织学与胚胎学教学大纲(英文版临床英文班)

发布时间:2018/11/26 10:36:00  文字 〖

《组织学与胚胎学》教学大纲  

适用专业:临床医学英文班

                          总学时: 44     理论学时:44        

   课程的性质和任务

组织学(histology)是研究人体微细结构及其相关功能的科学。胚胎学(embryology)是研究个体发生、发育规律及其机制的科学。这两门课程均为形态学科,是临床医学等专业学生学习生理、生化、病理解剖等后续课程和临床实践所必备的基础。组织学与胚胎学既相互联系又自成体系,属重要的医学基础课程,是国家规定的主要课程,是我校教学计划中的必修课(考试)。本课程以辩证唯物主义的观点为指导,坚持教师指导下学生自学为主的施教原则,理论与实践相结合,使学生掌握细胞、组织和器官的光镜结构及超微结构,了解其相关的功能;理解胚胎发生过程和常见畸形成因,为学习其它基础医学和临床医学课程奠定基础。

   相关课程的衔接

组织学是重要的医学基础课程,也是生命科学的基础学科。组织学的研究极大地促进了生理学的发展;生物化学的进步也促进了组织学的发展,例如,将生物化学与分子生物学的原理用于组织学而建立起组织化学及分子细胞学,将免疫学的原理用于组织学而建立起免疫组织化学等。从而使人们得知各种细胞与组织的化学组成、分子结构及其基本生命现象;组织学也是病理解剖学等基础医学和妇产科等临床医学课程的基础,故医学生要通过学习组织学,系统掌握人体的微细结构及相关功能,为其他基础和临床医学的学习打下必备的形态学基础和基本技能。

三、教学的基本要求

(一)基本理论知识

1. 巩固生物学有关细胞学的概念、细胞的超微结构及其相关功能。

2.掌握四大基本组织的光镜结构和主要超微结构,了解其相关的功能。
3.掌握各系统中主要器官的组织结构和重要超微结构,了解其相关的功能。
4
掌握人胚早期发育的基本过程以及胚胎附属结构的形成、构造和机能意义。熟悉人体各系统发生过程的概况,掌握主要器官的发生过程及常见畸形,以及主要致畸因素和致畸敏感期。

(二)基本技能
1.要求学生进一步提高学习能力,学会听课时扼要记笔记,有效使用教学大纲、教科书和实习指导,能科学地安排课外自学时间。
2.
了解研究组织学与胚胎学常用的技术,石蜡切片、超薄切片制作的基本原理及过程,组织化学、免疫组织化学术的基本原理和应用范围等。

3. 学生必须掌握一定量的专业外文词汇,并列入考试内容。

(三) 基本素质                                    

1.态度   培养学生热爱党、热爱社会主义,立志献身于医学事业;树立良好的职业道德,全心全新意为人民服务;培养严谨的,实事求是的科学作风。
2.能力   在教学中对学生进行多种能力的培养,即形象思维能力,空间想象能力、自学能力,阅读能力,综合分析能力,描述表达能力,创造思维能力等。

教师必须研究本大纲所规定的教学内容,掌握好重点和难点,在教学内容中能适当反映学科的新进展、新动向。在教学过程中,要注意培养学生严肃的科学态度、严格的科学作风和严密的科学方法;要培养学生独立分析问题与解决问题的能力,提高学生科学思维能力;加强实验课,通过直观电化教学和绘图,培养学生观察、分析和描述能力。

四、学时分配(理论)

Chapter

Teaching contents

·         period

1~2

Introduction and cell

2

3

Epithelial tissue

2

4

Connective tissue proper

2

5

Bloodlymph and hemocytopoiesis

2

6

Cartilage and bone

2

7

Muscle tissue

2

8

Nerve tissue

2

10

Circulatory system

2

11

Immune system

2

13

Endocrine system

2

14

Digestive tube

2

15

Digestive gland

2

16

Respiratory system

2

18

Urinary system

2

19

Male reproductive system

2

20

Female reproductive system

2

22

Genenral embryology(1)

2

22

Genenral embryology(2)

2

23

Development of the face,neckand  limb

2

     24

Development of digestive and respiratory system

2

25

Development of urogenital system

2

26

Development of cardiovascular system

2

total

44

   五、课程考核

分为两种方式,形成性考核与终结性考核。形成性考核成绩占课程总成绩的40%,终结性考核成绩占课程总成绩的60%。形成性考核包括课堂出勤(占5%),阶段测试(占25%),平时测验(占10%)。终结性考核采用闭卷考试,百分制。课程总成绩和终结性考核成绩均60分及以上为合格。终结性考核不及格(按百分制计算60及格)按该门课程总成绩不及格认定。

   六、教材及主要参考书

   (一)教科书

石玉秀主编,《组织学与胚胎学》第二版,高等教育出版社,2013.5

   (二)参考书

[1] 邹仲之主编,《组织学与胚胎学》第六版,人民卫生出版社,2005.

[2] 刘斌主编,《人体胚胎学》,人民卫生出版社,1994.

[3] 安靓主编,《医学发育生物学》, 人民卫生出版社,2002.

[4] ShermanHuman Embryo  (影印版),logy Lawrence S.人民卫生出版社,2002.

[5] L.C.Junqueria J.《Basic Histology》, Carneiro Lange Press. 11th  2005.

[6] 郭志坤主编,《组织学彩色图谱》,人民军医出版社,1999.

[7] 成令忠主编,《现代组织学》,上海科技文献出版社,2003.

[8] 蔡文琴主编,《现代实用细胞与分子生物学试验技术》,人民军医出版社,2003.

[9] 唐军民主编,《组织学与胚胎学彩色图谱》,北京大学医学出版社,2003.

[10]高英茂主编,《组织学与胚胎学》双语版,科学出版社,2005.3.

   七、Teaching contents

Chapter 1  Introduction

【Teaching contents】

The definition and content of histology, the relationships of cells、tissues and organs;the principal process of paraffin section. The relationships of histology、anatomy、physiology、immunology and pathology.The learning method of histology.The research method of histology; the preparation of paraffin section and HE staining; the ultrastructural organization of cells and tissues; transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope; histochemistry and cytochemistry; PAS staining.

【Teaching requirements】

To grasp thehistological research component. To grasp frequently used unit of measurement of histology.To understand the technology of frequently used light microscope.

To understand the histological research method.

【key point and difficulty】

key pointsThe relationships of cells、tissues and organs;the principal process of paraffin section.

difficultiesacidophilia,basophilia,argyrophilia,argentaffin,chromaffinity and metachromasia.

Chapter 3 Epithelial tissue

【Teaching contents】

The general features and classification of epithelial tissue.Covering epithelium:the structure、distribution and function of simple squamous epithelium、simple cuboidal epithelium、simple columnar epithelium、pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium、stratified squamous epithelium and transitional epithelium.Special structure:Free surface :microvillus and cilium;Lateral  surfaces: tight junction,intermediate junction,desmosome and gap junction;basal surface:basement membrane and plasma membrane infolding. Glandular epithelium:the concept and classification of glandular epithelium and gland.

【Teaching requirements】

To master the general features and classification of epithelial tissue.To Master the

classification, structural features, distribution and function of each kind of covering epithelium.To Understand special structures of covering epithelium. To Understand the concept and classification of glandular epithelium and gland.

【key point and difficulty】

key points: The classification, structural features, distribution and function of each kind of covering epithelium.

difficultiesspecial structures and function of epithelial tissue.

Chapter 4 Connective tissue proper

【Teaching contents】

The general feature and classification of connective tissueThe distribution

structure and function of loose connective tissueThe structure and function of collagen fiber、elastic fibers and reticular fiber;The formation and function of ground substance

The fine structure and function of fibroblasts、macrophages、plasma cells and mast cells;  

The structure and function of the dense connective tissue, adipose tissue, reticular tissue.

【Teaching requirements】

To master the structural features of loose connective tissue;To master the structure and function of elements of loose connective tissue;To master the fine structure of collagen fiber、elastic fiber and reticular fiber;To master the fine structure and function of fibroblasts、macrophages、plasma cells and mast cells;To understand the construction of ground substanceTo understand the structure and function of the dense connective tissue, adipose tissue, reticular tissue.

【key point and difficulty】

key points:The structure and function of fiber and cells in loose connective tissue;

difficulties:The concept、characteristic and function.

Chapter 5 Bloodlymph and hemocytopoiesis

【Teaching contents】

The construction of blood: blood plasma and blood cells;The construction features,

normal value and function of erythrocyte; construction features and normal value of reticulocyte;the functions and morphological feature of neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and monocytes;the function and morphology of blood platelets;The succession of hemocytopoiesis.

【Teaching requirements】

To grasp the construction features, normal value and function of erythrocyte;To grasp

the functions and morphological feature of neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and monocytes.To understand the function and morphology of blood plateletsTo understand the elementary process of hemocytopoiesis.

【key point and difficulty】

key points: The morphosis、normal value and function of blood cells.

difficulties: Hemocytopoiesis.

Chapter 6 Cartilage and bone

【Teaching contents】

The classification and structure of cartilage tissue;the structure and function of

hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage;the fine structure of chondrocytes;the growth pattern of cartilage;The structure of bone tissue and bone plates;

The fine structure and function of osteoprogenitor cell 、osteocytes 、osteoblasts and

osteoclasts;The conception of long bone, the arrange and construction features of compact bone;The conception of periosteous;The elementary process of osteogenesis.

【Teaching requirements】

To master the classification of cartilage tissue;To master the fine structure and

function of hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage;To master the conception of isogenous group、cartilage capsule and cartilage lacuna;To understand the growth pattern of cartilage;To master the fine structure of bone tissue;To master the conception of bone plates、osteon、bone canaliculi、bone lacuna and intermediate lamella;

To master the fine structure of  osteoblasts and osteoclasts;To master the arrange and construction features of compact bone;To understand the structure and function of periosteous.

【key point and difficulty】

key points: The fine structure and function of hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage

and fibrocartilage;the fine structure and function of osteoprogenitor cell 、osteocytes 、osteoblasts and osteoclasts; the arrange and construction features of compact bone.

difficulties: the growth pattern of cartilage and elementary process of osteogenesis.

Chapter 7 Muscle tissue

【Teaching contents】

To overview the general feature and classification of muscle tissue;The fine structure of skeletal muscle fiber and contractile mechanism, intramuscular construction;The fine structure of cardiac muscle fiber;The fine structure of cardiac muscle fiber;The fine structure of smooth muscle.

【Teaching requirements】

To grasp the morphologcal features of skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle fiber;To understand the morphological features of thick and thin filament;To understand the fine structure of smooth muscle.

【key point and difficulty】

key points:To grasp the fine structure of the skeletal muscle fiber and cardiac muscle fiber.

difficulties:To grasp the electron microscope and molecular structure of myofibril.

Chapter 8 Nervous tissue

【Teaching contents】

The structure and function of nervous tissue and neuron; axonal Transport; classification of neurons; neuroglial cell; neuroglial cells in central nervous system; neuroglial cells in peripheral nervous system.The ultrastructure and function of chemical synapse;The ultrastructure and classification of nerve fibers; the construction features of all kinds of nerve fibers.The conception、classification of nerve endings;the distribution、structures and function of sensory nerve endings;the structures and function of somatic motor nerve ending.

【Teaching requirements】

To grasp the morphological features of neuron;To grasp the ultrastructure of chemical synapse;To grasp the structure of myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fiber;To understand the structure and function of nerve endings;nerve terminal

【key point and difficulty】

key points:The fine structure and function of neurons.

difficultiesThe structure of myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fiber.

Chapter 10 Circulatory system

【Teaching contents】

The general structure of blood vessels; capillary; light microscopic structure of capillaries; ultrastructure, distribution and function of continuous capillary, fenestrated capillary and blood sinus; artery: structure of big artery, medium-sized artery, small artery and arteriolar; vein: the general structural features of vein; structure of venous valve. Microcirculation: structure characteristic and the function of each vascular in microcirculation.心脏:心脏壁的组织结构;心脏传导系统的结构与分布。Heart: the organizational structure of the heart wall; the structure and distribution of the cardiac conduction system.

【Teaching requirements】

To master the light microscopic structure of capillaries and ultrastructural features

and the distribution of three types of capillary; to master structure features and functions of big artery, medium-sized artery, small artery; to understand the general structural features of vein; to understand the characteristics and functions of each vascular in microcirculation; to master structure of the wall of heart; to understand the structure of the cardiac conduction system; To understand the general structure of lymphatic vessels.

【key point and difficulty】

key pointsthe fine structure of capillaries; the general structure of vascular wall; structure of the walls of the heart.

difficultiesthe ultrastructure of continuous capillary, fenestrated capillary and blood sinus; structure of the cardiac conduction system.

Chapter 11 Immune system

【Teaching contents】

The composition and function of the immune system; composition of immune cell; concept, composition and function of mononuclear phagocyte system; classification of lymphoid tissue; structural features of diffuse lymphoid tissue and lymph nodule; the concept and function of central and peripheral lymphoid organs.Structure of thymus cortex and medulla;Blood breast barrier; structure of thymus corpuscles; function of thymus. Structure of the lymph nodes: structure and function of cortex and medulla, peripheral cortex, deep cortex, lymphoid sinus; medullary cord and medullary sinus; The concept, approach and functional significance of lymphocyte recirculation; function of lymph nodes. Structure of spleen: the structure and function of the white pulp, red pulp, marginal zone, splenic corpuscle, periarterial lymphatic sheath, splenic cord and spleen sinus; blood circulation of spleen; function of spleen.Structure and function of tonsil.

【Teaching requirements】

To understanding the composition and function of the immune system. To Master the

structure and function of lymphoid tissue. To understand the concept and composition of central lymphoid organs and peripheral lymphoid organs. To master the structure and function of lymph node and spleen. To understanding the structure and function of tonsil. To understanding the structure and function of the thymus. To master the concept, composition and function of mononuclear phagocyte system.

【key point and difficulty】

key points:the structure of diffuse lymphoid tissue and lymph nodule; the structure of lymph node and spleen; the concept, approach and functional significance of lymphocyte recirculation.难点:抗原提呈细胞;淋巴小结;淋巴细胞再循环;单核吞噬细胞系统。

difficultiesantigen presenting cells; lymph node; lymphocyte recirculation; mononuclear phagocyte system.

Chapter 13 Endocrine system

【Teaching contents】

Composition of the endocrine system; the general structural features of endocrine gland; ultrastructure features of nitrogenous hormone cells and steroid hormone secreting cells; definition of hormone, paracrine and target organ, target cells.The general structure of the thyroid: light microscopic structure of follicular thyroid; ultrastructure of thyroid follicular epithelial cell; the process of the formation and release of thyroxine; distribution, micro structure and secretion of the hormone of parafollicular cell. The general structure of parathyroid gland: light microscopic structure and secretion of the hormone of principal cells, eosinophils. The general structure of adrenal gland: hormone and structure of zona fasciculata and reticularis and secreted by the zona glomerulosa, ultrastructure and common features of cortical cells; light microscopic structure and hormone secretion of chromaffin cells (BCCs), distribution of adrenal vascular.The general structure of hypophysis: composition of hypophysis; structure and classification of acidocyte and basocyte in pars distalis, basophils; structure of chromophobe cell; the general structure of neurohypophysis; pituitary portal system and its meaning; the relationship of hypothalamus- hypophysis-target organ.

【Teaching requirements】

To understand the general structure of the endocrine glands. To master the ultrastructural features of nitrogen containing hormone secreting cells and steroid hormone secreting cells. To master light microscopic structure and its secretion of thyroid hormone and adrenal. To master structure, cell types and functions  of adenohypophysis; pituitary portal system. To understand the function of parathyroid gland. To understand the concept, composition and distribution of APUD system.

【key point and difficulty】

key points: ultrastructural characteristics of secretory nitrogen hormone cells and steroid hormone secreting cell; the structure of thyroid follicles; structure and function of parafollicular cells; structure of adrenal cortex and secretion of the hormone of each belt; structure and secretion of the hormone of pars distalis hypophyseos; pituitary portal system; light microscopic structure of pars nervosa in neurohypophysis.

difficulties:the process of the formation and evolution of thyroxinic, the relationship between hypothalamus and adenohypophysis; axon terminal distribution and the releasing hormone of neuroendocrine cells in the hypothalamus; relationship of hypothalamus- hypophysis-target organ.

Chapter 14 The digestive tract

【Teaching contents】

The general structure of the digestive tract, from the inside to the outside is divided into: mucosa (epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa), submucosa, muscular layer and adventitia. Structural features of esophagus. Structural features of stomach: light microscopic structure and function of epithelial; structure characteristics of fundic gland; the microstructure and function of chief cells and parietal cells. The structure characteristics of the small intestine; structure and function of villi; the microstructure and function of epithelial absorptive cells; structure characteristics of small intestinal glands; structure of duodenum, jejunum and ileum; the structure of expand small intestinal absorption surface area: circular folds, villous, microvilli. Structural features of colon.Structure characteristics of appendix. Secretory immune system of digestive tract. The endocrine functions of digestive tract.

【Teaching requirements】

To master the general structure of the digestive tract; to master the cell types,

structure and function of fundic gland; to master the structure characteristics of the small intestine, structure and function of the villi; to understand the characteristics of esophageal and colon; to understand the structure of lingual papillae and tongue mucosa;to understand the immune endocrine function of the digestive tract.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
 
【key point and difficulty】

难点:消化管分泌性免疫球蛋白sIgA的产生过程与功能意义。

key pointsthe general structure of the digestive tract; structure and function of fundic gland; structural features of small intestine; circular folds, villus.

difficultiesproduction and function of immunoglobulin sIgA in the digestive tract.

Chapter 15 Digestive gland

【Teaching contents】

Structure and function of major salivary glands; acinus: serous alveoli, mucous alveoli, mixed alveoli. The general structure of pancreas; structural characteristics of acinus in external secretion cells; the centroacinar cells, no myoepithelial cell; cell types and functions of endocrine department, distribution and structure characteristics of A cell, B cell, D cell and PP cell. The general structure of liver; concept of hepatic lobule and portal area; hepatic lobule: central vein, liver cell, hepatic sinusoid, Disse's space, bile canaliculus; structure of liver plate (hepatic cord); light microscope, ultrastructural features and functions of liver cells; ultrastructure of bile canaliculi; light structural and ultrastructural features of liver sinusoid, the function of Kupffer cells; structure and function of perisinusoidal space and fat-storing cells; composition of portal areas.

【Teaching requirements】

To master the construction features of serous gland, mucous gland and mixed gland acinar and three kinds of salivary gland. To master the structure and function of pancreas. To master the light, electron structure of hepatocyte, hepatic lobule and structure of  portal area; to understand characteristic of liver blood circulation and its relationship with liver function; to understand the structure of gallbladder and bile duct.

【key point and difficulty】

key pointsstructural characteristics of acinus; general structure of pancreas; light, electron microscopic structure of hepatic lobules and structure of portal area.

difficultiesthe construction features of liver cells in three species of functional surface.

Chapter 16 Respiratory system

【Teaching contents】

nasal cavity: section of nasal cavity; the structure and function of vestibular portion and olfactory mucosa. The trachea and bronchus: structure of trachea and main bronchus; structure of  mucous; light, electron structure and function of epithelial cells. Lung: general structure of the lung; composition of conductive portion of lung, respiratory portion of lung, pulmonary lobules; structural changes of conductive portion of lung;

light, electron microscopy structure of bronchiole and terminal bronchioles; distribution of endocrine cells in epithelium of the respiratory tract and the hormone its secretion; structure the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sac; ultrastructure and function of the type I and type II alveolar cells; structure of alveolar septum;; alveolar pores; pulmonary interstitial tissue; composition and function blood-air barrier; pulmonary macrophages; non respiratory function of lung.

【Teaching requirements】

To understanding the structure and function of nasal mucosa.To master the structure of the trachea and bronchi.To grasp the general structure of lung, ultrastructure and function of alveolar.To know the distribution pulmonary blood vessels, lymphatic and neural. To understand the non respiratory function of lung.

【key point and difficulty】

key pointsthe structure of the trachea and main bronchi; structural changes of conductive portion of lung; the composition and main features of the respiratory department; the composition and function of blood-air barrier; structure of alveolus.难点:II型肺泡细胞的超微结构;气-血屏障。

difficulties:the ultrastructure of type II alveolar cells; blood-air barrier.

Chapter 18 Urinary system

【Teaching contents】 

The general structure of the kidney; concept, composition and its distribution of kidney; superficial nephron, juxtamedullary nephron; light, electron microscopic structure of renal corpuscle; composition and function of the filtration barrier; light, electron structure of renal tubular segments; light microscopic structure and function of papillary duct; the location and composition of juxtaglomerular complex; light, electron microscopic structure and function of juxtaglomerular cell; light, electron microscopic structure and function of the macula densa; structural characteristics of extraglomerular mesangial cells; composition and distribution and structure feature and function of renal interstitial; renal blood circulation;the general structure and function of renal calices, renal pelvis, ureter and bladder.

【Teaching requirements】

To master composition of nephron; structural characteristics and function of renal corpuscle,filtration barrier.To master the light microscope, electron microscope structure and function of proximal convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tubule.To master composition, structure and function of juxtaglomerular complex.To understand the characteristics of renal blood circulation. To understand structure of urinary bladder and ureter.To understanding the distribution and structure of collecting duct and papillary duct.

【key point and difficulty】

key pointsstructure and function of the renal corpuscle; filtration barrier; the light microscope, electron microscope structure of proximal convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tubular; juxtaglomerular complex.

difficulties the concept, composition and its part of the position of  nephron,; structure of filtration barrier, juxtaglomerular cell, macula densa.

Chapter 19 The male reproductive system

【Teaching contents】

The general structure of the testis, structure of seminiferous tubules; position and structure of spermatogenic cells in spermatogenesis. light microscopic structure, ultrastructure and function of Sertoli cell; composition of the blood testis barrier; internal environment ofspermatogenesis; structure and age changes of testis at before or after puberty; light, electron structure and function of Leydig cell; straight tubules and rete testis. Epididymis: structure and function of efferent duct and epididymal duct. The structure of deferent duct. Prostate: composition, structure characteristics of stroma.

【Teaching requirements】

To grasp the structure of seminiferous tubules; light microscope characteristic of spermatogenic cells at all levels; spermatogenesis.To master light microscope structure and function of supporting cell light microscopy structure and function of Leydig cells; the blood testis barrier.To understand the epididymis, vas deferens, prostatic structure.

【key point and difficulty】

key points:the structure of seminiferous tubule; characteristic of spermatogenic cells at all levels; the blood-testis barrier; structure and the function of Leydig cells.

difficultiesspermatogenesis; the blood-testis barrier.

Chapter 20 The female reproductive system

【Teaching contents】

The general structure of the ovary; follicular development: primordial follicles, growing follicles, mature follicle in three stages; each stage of follicular structure and

endocrine function; secondary follicle structure: primary oocyte, zona pellucida, corona radiate, cumulus, follicular cavity, granulosa, theca; the concept and the process of ovulation; corpus luteum formation, cell composition, structure and function. The general structure of the uterus; menstrual cycle: menstrual, proliferative, secretory period 3; structure characteristic of each phase of endometrium and relationship between ovarian endocrine hormone. The structure and function of the fallopian tube. Structure characteristics of stationary phase, pregnancy and lactation of breast.

【Teaching requirements】

To grasp the characteristics of the structure of follicles in three stages of follicular development; master ovulation concept; concept, composition and function of the corpus luteum. To grasp the relationship between endometrial cyclical changes and structure characteristics of ovarian endocrine hormone. To understand the structure of oviduct, breast structure.

【key point and difficulty】

key pointsstructure characteristics of follicle; concept of ovulation and corpus luteum; changes characteristics of endometrical cycle.

difficultiesconstruction features of the secondary follicle; the relationship between endometrial changes periodically with ovarian endocrine hormone.

Chapter 22  The early development of human embryo

【Teaching contents】

Introduction of embryology: the research content and significance of the development history of Embryology; Germ cell and fertilization: the occurrence of germ cells and maturation; fertilization time, location, condition and process; the result and significance of fertilization. Blastocyst and implantation: cleavage process; structure and characteristics of morulae and inner cell mass of blastocyst; trophoblast; process and conditions of implantation; ectopic implantation and its causes. The two germ layers: formation of amniotic cavity and the yolk sac placenta; epiblast and hypoblast; trophoblast, composed of syncytiotrophoblast and extraembryonic mesoderm; structure and function of the chorionic villi.The three germ layers period: the emergence of the embryonic axis decision; into notochord and extraembryonic mesoderm; neural plate, neural channel is formed and neural tube; somite; forming plates and the intraembryonic coelom; components and parts, the yolk sac allantois, intermediate mesoderm, oropharyngeal membrane, cloacal membrane, embryo wall, splanchnopleura and body stalk.The embryonic period: the blastoderm replication; gastrulate and yolk stalk; cord formation of umbilical; embryo appearance change summary; basic pattern structure of embryo in the transverse and longitudinal section of the calculation method of embryonic age.Fetal period: the main change characteristics of fetus each fetal age; calculation method; influencing factors of perinatal fetal growth; meaning.Fetal membrane and placenta: the formation of yolk sac, chorion, amnion and umbilical cord and its function in the placenta of decidual reaction; distinguish of decidual uterus; structure and function of placental barrier; hydatidiform mole. Twin: monozygotic twins and dizygotic twins.

【Teaching requirements】

To understand the object of study embryological. To understand the development history of embryology. To understand the process of capacitation and fertilization of sperm. To grasp the development of three weeks ago in human embryo and embryo implantation.

To grasp the development process of human from embryonic four to eighth weeks. To understand the calculation method of embryonic age. To understand the main changes of fetal period, calculating method of fetal age. To master the structure and function of membranes, decidua and placenta.

【key point and difficulty】

key points: the concept and research content of embryology. The location, process, conditions and significance of fertilization. Formation and differentiation, cleavage and blastocyst blastocyst implantation and three germ layers;Structure and function of placenta.

difficulties: the formation and embryo intraembryonic mesoderm.

Chapter 23 Development of the face, neck and limbs

【Teaching contents】

The formation of arch and gill furrow.Formation of the face: the frontonasal prominence, maxillary, mandibular long protuberance formation and development of convex. Occurrence mouth concave and nasal fossa. Congenital malformations, such as cleft lip: oblique facial cleft.Palate: the formation and fusion median palatal and lateral palatal shelves. Congenital deformity of cleft palate.The skeletal system: the axial skeleton; skull; limbs; joint occurrence.The muscular system occurred: skeletal muscle; myocardium; smooth muscle occurs.Congenital malformations: spina bifida, semi vertebral, Amelia, polydactyly, talipes equinovarus.

【Teaching requirements】

To know facial and palatal formation and congenital malformation.To understanding the basic mechanism of extremities occur and congenital malformation.

【key point and difficulty】

key points: development of face and congenital malformation. The limbs of the occurrence and congenital malformation.

difficultiesthe formation and differentiation of the face.

Chapter 24 Development of digestive and respiratory system.

【Teaching contents】

Archenterons: the differentiation of the foregut, midgut and hindgut; oropharyngeal and cloacal membrane membrane; Development of the thyroid gland; congenital malformations: thyroglossal duct cyst.Pharyngeal bursa: the relationship between the occurrence and differentiation of pharyngeal pouch and gills ditch, the pharyngeal pouch derivatives, thymus and development of the thyroid gland, ultimobranchial gland.Esophageal and stomach.

Intestinal: intestinal growth, the formation of intestinal loops and physiological umbilical hernia, intestinal rotation process. Cloacal separated, PROCTODEUM, anal membrane Rupture. Congenital malformations: Meckel's diverticulum, umbilical fecal fistula, congenital umbilical hernia, stricture or atresia, atresia of anus.Liver, gallbladder, pancreas occurred: occurrence and integration of hepatic diverticulum, forming the main pancreatic duct and vice pancreatic duct, pancreatic occurred.Development of the respiratory system: laryngotracheal groove formation and growth of the larynx, trachea and lung, forming; congenital malformations: tracheo esophageal fistula.

【Teaching requirements】

To understand the formation and differentiation of archenteron. To Master position and differentiation of pharyngeal pouch; development and congenital malformation of the thyroid gland. To understand development and congenital malformation the digestive tube. To understand the development of liver, gallbladder, pancreas. To understand the development of respiratory system.

【key point and difficulty】

key points:development and congenital malformations of the digestive system, respiratory

system.

difficulties the occurrence and the evolution process of stomach; the evolution of cloaca.

Chapter 25 Development of  urogenital system

【Teaching contents】

Urinary system: development of pronephric tubule and archinephric canal; development of mesonephric tubule and mesonephric duct; the formation and evolution of ureteric bud and metanephrogenic tissue; position change of metanephros; congenital malformations: horseshoe kidney, polycystic kidney and pelvic kidney; separate and evolution of cloaca: the formation of urogenital sinus; occurrence of bladder and urethra; Reproductive system: source of primordial germ cells; appearance of genital ridge; differentiation of gonad and H - Y antigen; descent of testis; Reproductive system: different evolution of mesonephric duct and mesonephric tubule in men and women; formation of paramesonephric duct and evolution in different sexes; relationship between differentiation of genital duct and androgen; occurrence of genitalia: the formation and sexual differentiation of genital tubercle, urogenital fold and eminence of labia vulvae; the relationship between external genitalia and androgen; Congenital malformations: true hermaphroditism, pseudohermaphroditism, double uterus, atresia of vagina, cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia.

【Teaching requirements】

To understanding of the development of pronephron and mesonephros, the development and congenital malformation of metanephros. To understand the formation, evolution and congenital malformation of the urogenital sinus. To understand the occurrence  of gonad and the mechanism of differentiation of gonads.To understand the differentiation mechanism and congenital malformation of reproductive tract.

【key point and difficulty】

key points:development of metanephros; congenital malformation of urinary system.

differentiation of the gonads;descent of testis; development of reproductive tract; congenital malformation.

difficulties:the occurrence and differentiation of metanephros.

The occurrence and differentiation of gonadal sex period (occurrence of testis and ovary occur).

Chapter 26 Development of  circulatory system

【Teaching contents】

The formation of blood vessels: extraembryonic vascular and embryo angiogenesis; establishment of early embryonic vascular circulation; Heart development: formation of cardiac tube; development of cardiogenic area and coelom around heart; formation and translocation of cardiac tube; distinguish the cardiac tube (conus arteriosus, cardiac ventricle, cardiac atrium, venous sinus); the formation of heart loop; formation  of heart septum and valve; the formation of interatrial septum and interventricular septum; Outline of blood vascular system development; vitelline circulation, establishment of systemic circulation and umbilical circulation; occurrence and evolution of aortic arch; the ways, characteristics and the change after birth of the fetal blood circulation; Congenital malformations: atrial septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, patent ductus arteriosus.

【Teaching requirements】

To master the development of heart and congenital malformation of heart and great vessels.To master the ways, characteristics and the change after birth of the fetal blood circulation.To understand the occurrence of blood cells in embryonic period.

【key point and difficulty】

key pointsthe formation of heart tube (the formation of primitive heart).

building of the shape in heart, separation of inside in heart.

difficultiesthe formation of cardiac tube;the relationship between pricardial coelom

and position of cardiac tube. separation of bulbus arteriosus

执笔人:李晓明   教研室:组织学与胚胎学 二级学院教学副院长审核签名:王顺

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